Bone plays an important role in dental implant treatment success. The goal of this literature review is to analyze the influence of bone definition and finite element parameters on stress in dental implants and bone in numerical studies. A search was conducted of Pubmed, Science Direct and LILACS, and two independent reviewers performed the data extraction. The quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook tool for clinical trials. Seventeen studies were included. Titanium was the most commonly-used material in dental implants. The magnitude of the applied loads varied from 15 to 300 N with a mean of 182 N. Complete osseointegration was the most common boundary condition. Evidence from this review suggests that bone is commonly defined as an isotropic material, despite being an anisotropic tissue, and that it is analyzed as a ductile material, instead of as a fragile material. In addition, and in view of the data analyzed in this review, it can be concluded that there is no standardization for conducting finite element studies in the field of dentistry. Convergence criteria are only detailed in two of the studies included in this review, although they are a key factor in obtaining accurate results in numerical studies. It is therefore necessary to implement a methodology that indicates which parameters a numerical simulation must include, as well as how the results should be analyzed.