Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a fluidized bed with liquid spray: Particle color-change based measurement and modelling Articles uri icon


  • Sun, Jingyuan
  • Guo, Xiaoyun
  • Wang, Haotong
  • Huang, Zhengliang
  • Fan, Xiaoqiang
  • Yang, Yao
  • Wang, Jingdai
  • Yang, Yongrong

publication date

  • January 2021

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 16


  • 116088


  • 229

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0009-2509

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-4405


  • Fluidized beds with the liquid spray have been widely applied due to efficient heat transfer ability. In this work, the liquid-containing particles and the liquid dispersion pathway are visualized by a unique reversible thermochromic material (RTM) tracking method. The effects of evaporative liquid considering different nozzle modes on bubble density, particle motion and heat transfer are investigated combining PIV and DIA. The results indicate that the liquid injection decreases particle fluctuation and promotes bubble generation. A stable liquid-containing zone is observed under the top spray mode, whereas liquid disperses rapidly under the side-wall spray mode. A multi-zone heat transfer model (MHTM) is then developed based on the bubble growth and inter-layer exchange models. Experimental and calculated temperature profiles indicate that the side-wall spray mode leads to larger temperature differences. The methods proposed can be applied for the analysis of the complex multiphase system and optimization of the nozzle configuration.


  • Chemistry
  • Renewable Energies


  • liquid dispersion; thermochromic material; nozzle configuration; heat transfer; multi-zone model