Experimental study of nanofluids flow and heat transfer over a backward-facing step channel Articles uri icon


  • Hilo, Ali Kareem
  • Talib, Abd Rahim Abu
  • Sultan, Mohammed Thariq Hameed
  • Hamid, Mohd Faisal Abdul

publication date

  • July 2020

start page

  • 497

end page

  • 505


  • 372

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0032-5910

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-328X


  • The forced convective heat transfer and friction factor of nanofluidsflow over a backward-facing step (BFS) in achannel with the base wall dissipating a uniform heatflux are experimentally investigated in this paper. Nano-particles such as CuO and MgO dispersed in pure ethylene glycol (EG) with average diameters of 40 nm, and vol-ume concentrations of 0, 1, 3, and 5% are considered as the working nanofluids. The results indicate that the heattransfer rate increases as the volume concentration of nanoparticles increased. The Nusselt number is enhancedup to 11% at 0.05 volume concentration compared to pure EG. The friction factor increases up to approximately15% at Reynolds number (Re) of 5000 and volume concentrations of 0.01 and 0.03. The maximum value ofthe PEC in a BFS channel is 1.5 for the CuO-EG and 1.2 for the MgO-EG at a volume concentrations of 0.03 and Re=20,000.


  • Materials science and engineering


  • backward-facing step; cuo nanoparticles; experimental nusselt number; forced convection