Study of the Emergency Braking Test with an Autonomous Bus and the sEMG Neck Response by Means of a Low-Cost System Articles uri icon

publication date

  • October 2020

start page

  • 931


  • 10


  • 11

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2072-666X


  • Nowadays, due to the advances and the increasing implementation of the autonomous braking systems in vehicles, the non-collision accident is expected to become more common than a crash when a sudden stop happens. The most common injury in this kind of accident is whiplash or cervical injury since the neck has high sensitivity to sharp deceleration. To date, biomechanical research has usually been developed inside laboratories and does not entirely represent real conditions (e.g., restraint systems or surroundings of the experiment). With the aim of knowing the possible neck effects and consequences of an automatic emergency braking inside an autonomous bus, a surface electromyography (sEMG) system built by low-cost elements and developed by us, in tandem with other devices, such as accelerometers or cameras, were used. Moreover, thanks to the collaboration of 18 participants, it was possible to study the non-collision effects in two different scenarios (braking test in which the passenger is seated and looking ahead while talking with somebody in front of him (BT1) and, a second braking test where the passenger used a smartphone (BT2) and nobody is seated in front of him talking to him). The aim was to assess the sEMG neck response in the most common situations when somebody uses some kind of transport in order to conclude which environments are riskier regarding a possible cervical injury.


  • electromyography; low-cost; biomechanics; neck injury; autonomous braking