- SOLAR ENERGY Journal
- December 2019
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- The Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) architecture is employed to overcome the mismatching phenomena in grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) installations. In this kind of architecture, a DC-DC module integrated converter (MIC) manages each PV panel. Thanks to the DC-DC converters, the differences between PV panels do not influence others, maximizing the amount of harvested power. The MIC requirements to make this kind of solutions profitable are voltage step-down and step-up capability, low cost and high efficiency. This paper analyses the Autotransformer Forward-Flyback (AFF) converter. This converter is considered as a MIC candidate for fulfilling the requirements above. The study of the AFF converter includes the steady-state analysis and the small signal analysis in continuous conduction mode. The advantages of the AFF converter are the capability of voltage step-down and step-up; the simplicity since it only includes a single controlled switch; the use of an autotransformer; good dynamic performances and the soft switching characteristics in all the diodes. The paper includes a detailed AFF converter step-by-step design procedure, applied to 100 kW grid-tied PV installation, in which the effect of shadows has been considered. A 225 W AFF converter prototype validates the theoretical analyses, achieving an efficiency up to 94.5%.
- autotransformer; dc/dc converter; dmppt; efficiency; module integrated converters; photovoltaic