The complexity of the Spanish clerical and anticlerical cultures in the 1930s was reflected by the diversity of their repertoires of collective action, which combined organized and spontaneous forms of confrontation. However, much anticlerical violence arose from collective action that had nothing to do with religion, such as coups, uprisings, riots, strikes, political rallies or demonstrations. Confronted with this situation, the reaction of the clergy was to intensify their capacity to mobilize important sectors of the populace. Among such actions, it was frequent to hear a call to arms against the Republican regime.
anticlericalism; catholicism; Spain; Second Republic; violence