Complete mechanical characterization of an external hexagonal implant connection: in vitro study, 3D FEM, and probabilistic fatigue Articles uri icon


  • Prados Frutos, Juan Carlos

publication date

  • December 2018

start page

  • 2233

end page

  • 2244


  • 12


  • 56

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0140-0118

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1741-0444


  • The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mechanical behavior of an external hexagonal implant connection (O3.5mm, 10-mm length) with an in vitro study, a three-dimensional finite element analysis, and a probabilistic fatigue study. Ten implant-abutment assemblies were randomly divided into two groups, five were subjected to a fracture test to obtain the maximum fracture load, and the remaining were exposed to a fatigue test with 360,000cycles of 15010N. After mechanical cycling, all samples were attached to the torque-testing machine and the removal torque was measured in Newton centimeters. A finite element analysis (FEA) was then executed in ANSYS (R) to verify all results obtained in the mechanical tests. Finally, due to the randomness of the fatigue phenomenon, a probabilistic fatigue model was computed to obtain the probability of failure associated with each cycle load. FEA demonstrated that the fracture corresponded with a maximum stress of 2454MPa obtained in the in vitro fracture test. Mean life was verified by the three methods. Results obtained by the FEA, the in vitro test, and the probabilistic approaches were in accordance. Under these conditions, no mechanical etiology failure is expected to occur up to 100,000cycles.


  • compression fracture; fatigue fracture; finite element analysis; mechanical behavior; failure probability; finite-element-analysis; dental implants; fracture-resistance; stress-distribution; abutments; zirconia; titanium; load; performance; prosthesis