Many discrepancies are found in the literature regarding the damage and constitutive models for head tissues as well as the values of the constants involved in the constitutive equations. Their proper definition is required for consistent numerical model performance when predicting human head behaviour, and hence skull fracture and brain damage. The objective of this research is to perform a critical review of constitutive models and damage indicators describing human head tissue response under impact loading. A 3D finite element human head model has been generated by using computed tomography images, which has been validated through the comparison to experimental data in the literature. The threshold values of the skull and the scalp that lead to fracture have been analysed. We conclude that (1) compact bone properties are critical in skull fracture, (2) the elastic constants of the cerebrospinal fluid affect the intracranial pressure distribution, and (3) the consideration of brain tissue as a nearly incompressible solid with a high (but not complete) water content offers pressure responses consistent with the experimental data.