Non-Invasive Oxygen Determination in Intelligent Packaging Using a Smartphone. Articles uri icon


  • Escobedo Araque, Pablo
  • Carvajal Rodriguez, Miguel A
  • Martinez Olmos, Antonio
  • Perez de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel M
  • Erenas, Miguel

publication date

  • June 2018

start page

  • 4351

end page

  • 4357


  • 18

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1530-437X

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1558-1748


  • Here, we present a technique for the determination of the gaseous oxygen concentration inside packed food. It is based on the use of a luminescent membrane sensitive to O-2 that is optically excited and read by a smartphone. The flash of the smartphone along with an optical filter is used as the light source for the optical stimulation of the membrane. The luminescence generated, which is quenched by the surrounding gaseous oxygen, is registered by the rear camera of the same device. The response parameter is defined by combining the registered intensities at two different wavelength ranges corresponding to the emission and the absorption peaks of the sensitive membrane. Thanks to this novel response parameter, the sensitivity is increased and, more importantly, the thermal dependence of the membrane is significantly reduced. This approach allows the use of a luminescent O-2-sensitive membrane for intelligent packaging with no need of any associated electronics for its excitation and reading. This means that an oxygen sensor is developed, where a luminescent compound acts as an indicator, therefore combining the advantages of both schemes, that is, the simplicity and reduced cost of indicators with the high sensitivity and accuracy of selective sensors.


  • intelligent packaging; oxygen sensing; optical sensor; luminescent membrane; smartphone; android (tm) application