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Foodomics involves the study of food and nutrition domains through the application and integration of advanced omics technologies, such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. This integration, together with biostatistics, chemometrics and bioinformatics tools allows the evaluation of complex biological systems, like those involved in the underlying mechanisms of bioactive food compounds that help to interpret the association between dietary exposure and health. In this review, we present a critical discussion of the recent developments in Foodomics approaches (including metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics) to understand the bioactivity of food and food ingredients on health as well as for the discovery of novel biomarkers related to such activity. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.