Multispecies Heterodyne Phase Sensitive Dispersion Spectroscopy over 80 nm Using a MEMS-VCSEL Articles uri icon

publication date

  • October 2017

start page

  • 2664

end page

  • 2668

issue

  • 11

volume

  • 4

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2330-4022

abstract

  • Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers fabricated with movable microelectromechanical mirrors can offer continuous single-mode wavelength tuning up to 100 nm with high efficiency and in a very small package. Wide tunability makes these diode lasers ideally suited for multispecies and high-density gas analysis and the first demonstrations of direct absorption spectroscopy and wavelength modulation spectroscopy have already been published. The performance of these systems could nevertheless be enhanced by the use of the new molecular dispersion spectroscopic methods, as heterodyne phase sensitive dispersion spectroscopy. This technique bases its operation on the detection of the profile of the refractive index of the sample under analysis, in contrast to traditional architectures based on the measurement of optical absorption, and this provides noticeable advantages. First, the method is normalization-free, and therefore, the characteristic issue of the nonmonotonic intensity profile during wavelength tuning of tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers is directly overcome. In addition, dispersion spectroscopy also provides an intrinsic linearity with concentration, high suitability for calibration-free operation, and an extended dynamic range that are very desirable features to have in an optical gas analyzer. In this Letter we present the first multispecies spectrometer based on a widely tunable vertical cavity surface emitting laser and heterodyne phase sensitive dispersion spectroscopy that is capable of operating in a tuning range of more of 80 nm for the simultaneous detection of several species.

keywords

  • optical gas analysis; laser spectroscopy; molecular dispersion spectroscopy; wideband spectroscopy; widely tunable lasers; absorption spectroscopy; density of gases; dispersion (waves); electromagnetic wave absorption; heterodyning; laser mirrors; laser pulses; lasers; light absorption; mems; microoptics; moems; molecular spectroscopy; optical waveguides; refractive index; spectrometers; spectroscopic analysis; surface emitting lasers; direct absorption spectroscopies; extended dynamic ranges; micro-electro-mechanical; molecular dispersions; traditional architecture; wavelength modulation spectroscopy; wide-band; widely tunable lasers; spectrum analysis