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An invariant procedure for the minimization of induced drag of generic biwings and closed systems (Joined Wings) was presented in the companion paper (minimum induced drag theorems for Joined Wings, closed systems, and generic biwings: theory) and is now adopted to study several theoretical open questions regarding these configurations. It is numerically verified that a quasi-closed C-wing presents the same optimal induced drag and circulation of the corresponding closed system. It is also verified that when the two wings of a biwing are brought close to each other so that the lifting lines identify a closed path, the minimum induced drag of the biwing is identical to the optimal induced drag of the corresponding closed system. The optimal circulation of this case differs from the quasi-closed C-wing one by an additive constant. The non-uniqueness of the optimal circulation for a closed wing system is also addressed, and it is shown that there are an infinite number of equivalent solutions obtained by adding an arbitrary constant to a reference optimal circulation.....
induced drag minimization; induced drag theorems for joined wings and biwings; boxwing