También publicado en ArXiv: arXiv:1505.03461 [math-ph]. Abstract: We analyze the effects of Robin-like boundary conditions on different quantum field theories of spin 0, 1/2 and 1 on manifolds with boundaries. In particular, we show that these conditions often lead to the appearance of edge states. These states play a significant role in physical phenomena like quantum Hall effect and topological insulators. We prove in a rigorous way the existence of spectral lower bounds on the kinetic term of different Hamiltonians, even in the case of Abelian gauge fields where it is a non-elliptic differential operator. This guarantees the stability and consistency of massive field theories with masses larger than the lower bound of the kinetic term. Moreover, we find an upper bound for the deepest edge state. In the case of Abelian gauge theories, we analyze a generalization of Robin boundary conditions. For Dirac fermions, we analyze the cases of Atiyah&-Patodi&-Singer and chiral bag boundary conditions. The explicit dependence of the bounds on the boundary conditions and the size of he system is derived under general assumptions.