This study analyzes the characteristics of the scientific output of Brazil and Spain in the High Energy Physics (HEP). The corpus of research is comprised of articles published in journals indexed by Web of Science (WoS) in the 1983-2013 period. Bibliometric indicators of output and collaboration were used in the characterization of the area. The results show that the growth rate of multilateral collaboration (Brazil, Spain and other countries) is greater than the individual growth of scientific production in each country. National institutions such as the Brazilian Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias(RENAFAE) and the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas(CSIC) played a key role in the promotion and coordination of international collaborations in both countries. Multilateral cooperation favors publications in Q1 journals and the citations. Bilateral cooperation in HEP does not bring enough benefits in terms of impact. However, this type of collaboration provides the infrastructure sharing and scientific knowledge. In HEP, international collaboration is crucial because a greater number of countries involved results in better indicators. However, the participation of Brazil and Spain in multinational networks does not imply a marked specialization.