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In this article some usually overlooked aspects of Vygotsky's work are presented. First, the understanding of the mediation system as a trans-organic, extended branch of the psychological system. Second, the semantic nature of conscience and the systemic neuropsychological organization of higher functions. Third, the leading role played in the psychic system by directive functions. Fourth, the understanding of human evolution as open and permanently provisional. Last, a reference is made to the role of psychology in the process of human auto-evolution, which Vygotsky viewed as a mission.