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Although the gas-phase production of nanostructured solids has already been carried out in industry for decades, only in recent years has research interest in this topic begun to increase. Nevertheless, despite the remarkable scientific progress made recently, many long-established processes are still used in industry. Scientific advancements can potentially lead to the improvement of existing industrial processes, but also to the development of completely new routes. This paper aims to review state-of-the-art synthesis and processing technologies, as well as the recent developments in academic research. Flame reactors that produce inorganic nanoparticles on industrial- and lab-scales are described, alongside a detailed overview of the different systems used for the production of carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the problems of agglomeration and mixing of nanoparticles, which are strongly related to synthesis and processing. Finally, we focus on two promising processing techniques, namely nanoparticle fluidization and atomic layer deposition. (C) 2016 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.