Dynamic multi-axial behavior of shape memory alloy nanowires with coupled thermo-mechanical phase-field models
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The objective of this paper is to provide new insight into the dynamic thermo-mechanical properties of shape memory alloy (SMA) nanowires subjected to multi-axial loadings. The phase-field model with Ginzburg-Landau energy, having appropriate strain based order parameter and strain gradient energy contributions, is used to study the martensitic transformations in the representative 2D square-to-rectangular phase transformations for FePd SMA nanowires. The microstructure and mechanical behavior of martensitic transformations in SMA nanostructures have been studied extensively in the literature for uniaxial loading, usually under isothermal assumptions. The developed model describes the martensitic transformations in SMAs based on the equations for momentum and energy with bi-directional coupling via strain, strain rate and temperature. These governing equations of the thermo-mechanical model are numerically solved simultaneously for different external loadings starting with the evolved twinned and austenitic phases. We observed a strong influence of multi-axial loading on dynamic thermo-mechanical properties of SMA nanowires. Notably, the multi-axial loadings are quite distinct as compared to the uniaxial loading case, and the particular axial stress level is reached at a lower strain. The SMA behaviors predicted by the model are in qualitative agreements with experimental and numerical results published in the literature. The new results reported here on the nanowire response to multi-axial loadings provide new physical insight into underlying phenomena and are important, for example, in developing better SMA-based MEMS and NEMS devices © 2014 The Author(s).
multi-axial loading; nanowire; phase-field model; shape memory alloy; thermo-mechanical coupling; axial loads; dynamics; martensitic transformations; nanowires; shape memory effect; strain rate; bidirectional coupling; coupled thermo-mechanical; ginzburg-landau energy; multi-axial loadings; phase-field modeling; shape memory alloys(sma); thermo-mechanical coupling; thermomechanical properties; loading