- BUSINESS HISTORY Journal
- September 2013
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- Co-operation among farmers is believed to contribute to the adoption of technological advances and marketing and commercial innovations, and the presence of co-operatives has been associated with agricultural growth and higher standards of living for farmers. This paper looks at the extent to which co-operatives for the production and marketing of agricultural products diffused in 13 countries during 1880-1930. Despite their important advantages, co-operatives spread slowly in Western countries before 1930. Co-operatives were mainly adopted in export countries, and most of the output of these societies was commercialised abroad or in markets substantially distant from the producing areas. Co-operatives were successfully formed where one crop system dominated and the density of production was high.
- 1880-1930; production and marketing; co-operatives; agriculture in western countries; property-rights; united-states