Comparative analysis of two different middleware approaches for reconfiguration of distributed real-time systems Articles uri icon



publication date

  • February 2014

start page

  • 221

end page

  • 233


  • 2


  • 60

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1383-7621

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-6165


  • Software-based reconfiguration of distributed real-time systems is a complex problem with many sides to it ranging from system-wide concerns down to the intrinsic non-robust nature of the specific middleware layer and the used programming techniques. In a completely open distributed system, mixing reconfiguration and real-time is not possible; the set of possible target states can be very large threatening the temporal predictability of the reconfiguration process. Over the last years, middle ware solutions have appeared mainly for general purpose systems where efficient state transitions are sought for, but real-time properties are not considered. One of the few contributions to run-time software reconfiguration in distributed real-time environments has been the iLAND middleware, where the germ of a solution with high potential has been conceived and delivered in practice.(1) The key idea has been the fact that a set of bounds and limitations to the structure of systems and to their open nature needs to be imposed in order to come up with practical solutions. In this paper, the authors present the different sides of the problem of software reconfiguration from two complementary middleware perspectives comparing two strategies built inside distribution middleware. We highlight the lessons learned in the iLAND project aimed at service-based reconfiguration and compare it to our experience in the development of distributed real-time Java reconfiguration based on distributed tasks rescheduling. Authors also provide a language view of both solutions. Lastly, empirical results are shown that validate these solutions and compare them on the basis of different programming language realizations. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • reconfiguration; distributed systems; middleware; real-time; specification; framework; java