Photographic Air Reconnaissance during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939: Doctrine and Operations Articles uri icon

publication date

  • July 2013

start page

  • 345

end page

  • 380


  • 3


  • 20

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0968-3445

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1477-0385


  • The doctrine and real use of aerial photography in Spain during the Spanish Civil War are studied. Both the Republican and rebel air forces developed their observation, reconnaissance, and aerial photography capacities, resources, and structures, which were generally grouped around the second sections of the air general staff. The successful operational and tactical exploitation of this special information provided to land forces is also examined. Finally, the ways of gathering, processing, analysing, and producing photographic intelligence are identified as decisive elements in the high command's modern decision-making process.


  • spanish civil war; photo interpretation; aerial observation; photographic intelligence; information processing; air reconnaissance