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Background Basal epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is a group of blistering genodermatoses mostly caused by mutations in the keratin genes, KRT5 and KRT14. Recessive mutations represent about 5% of all EBS mutations, being common and specific in populations with high consanguinity, where affected patients show severe phenotypes. Objectives To accomplish the first mutational analysis in patients of Spanish origin with EBS and to delineate a comprehensive genotype-phenotype correlation. Methods Twenty-one EBS families were analysed. Immunofluorescence mapping at the dermoepidermal junction level was performed on skin biopsies from patients. Mutation screening of the entire coding sequences of KRT5 and KRT14 in genomic DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Results KRT5 or KRT14 causative mutations were identified in 18 of the 21 EBS families. Conclusions This study further confirms the genotype-phenotype correlation established for EBS in other ethnic groups, and is the first in a Mediterranean country (excluding Israel). This study adds two novel recessive mutations to the worldwide record to date, which includes a total of 14 mutations. As in previous reports, the recessive mutations resulted in a lack of keratin K14, giving rise to a generalized and severe presentation.