electronic international standard serial number (EISSN)
Grape quality and the nature of market demand played a major role indetermining the organizational structure of the wine industry in the threedecades prior to 1914. In contrast to Europe where grape growing andwinemaking were specialist activities, in the New World winemaking andselling were often integrated. This encouraged the appearance of largeindustrial wineries producing wines that could be branded. Differenceswithin the New World itself can be attributable to the nature of demand and,in particular, to whether wine was considered an article of primary consumption(Argentina), or whether it competed with other, more popularalcoholic beverages such as beer and spirits (Australia and California).
wine factor endowments; firm organization; vertical integration; new settlers; xix century; grape production; commercial wine production; commodity chains