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We investigate human capital accumulation in Spain using alternative approaches based on the concept of 'labor quality' and on the idea of education. We, then, assess the effect of human capital accumulation on labor productivity growth and discuss the implications of the different measures for TFP growth. While long-run trends in human capital are similar with either measure, the skill premium approach fits better Spanish historical experience. Human capital provided a positive albeit small contribution to labor productivity growth facilitating technological innovation. Broad capital accumulation and efficiency gains appear complementary in Spain's long-term growth.