A Per-Unit Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Energy System Articles uri icon

publication date

  • April 2010

start page

  • 1186

end page

  • 1194


  • 4


  • 57

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0278-0046

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1557-9948


  • Nowadays, hybrid energy systems have a great applicability for both vehicle and stationary purposes. The design, development, and testing of these systems are not straightforward due to the high number of
    elements involved, the complexity, and cost. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)
    is an appropriate approach to simulate the hybrid system as it combines
    both physical and simulated elements. However, the HIL simulation sizing
    may vary from watts to megawatts, depending on the application. If,
    instead of carrying out the simulation in absolute values, it is carried
    out in per-unit (p.u.) values, the HIL test bench will be independent
    of the application power rating. Hence, a p.u. HIL test bench to
    simulate a hybrid energy system is proposed. To prove the usefulness and
    applicability of the HIL simulation presented, a particular fuel-cell
    hybrid electric vehicle is simulated in real time. Results show that the
    proposed p.u. HIL simulation is appropriate for the simulation of
    high-power systems.