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This paper reports an analysis of whether state-owned enterprises (SOEs) increase their levels of corporate entrepreneurship after privatization. The study uses agency theory to discuss why SOEs display little entrepreneurial behavior and how privatization may alter this situation by changing firms' systems of controls and incentives. The study also uses a sample of Spanish firms for its empirical research. Data on these firms were available for three years before and after privatization. The findings show that corporate entrepreneurship increases after privatization when firms are in highly competitive industries, either because competition was greater after privatization or because the firm was already in a highly competitive industry. In summary, corporate entrepreneurship in privatized firms seems to be favored by two factors, a change of ownership and competition.