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The use of a low-cost split-ring resonator (SRR) passive sensor for the real-time permittivity characterization of hydrocarbon fluids is proposed in this paper. The characterization of the sensor is performed through both full-wave simulation and measurements. Thanks to the analysis of several crude samples, the possibility of discrimination between different types of crude and the estimation of several of their properties are demonstrated. Between them, the estimation of sulfur, aromatic hydrocarbons, and salt-water concentrations either in normal ambient conditions or in a high-pressure and high-temperature environment can be mentioned. Experiments were run both at normal ambient conditions and pressures up to 970 bar and temperatures up to 200 °C.